- Aerospace & Defense
- Construction & Infrastructure
- Food & Beverage
- Metal Fabrication
- Pharma & Biotech
- Rubber & Plastics
- Power & Energy
- Pulp & Paper
- Petrochemicals & Refining
- Mobility & Transportation
Linde is the largest supplier of carbon dioxide and one of the largest nitrogen suppliers in the United States. We also supply the carbon dioxide portable tanks, booster pumps and expert operators needed to get the job done. Linde provides carbon dioxide and nitrogen for fraccing in most major gas and oil producing areas of the United States.
Energized fluids or gas is often injected into wells, to enhance hydrocarbon production rates and yields. It can also be used for:
Fraccing of low-energy reservoirs
Rapid clean-up of treating fluids
Acid breakdowns and treatments
Water-sensitive formation protection
Mud, silt and fines removal
Water block removal
Reduction in swabbing time
Surface tension reduction
Reducing gas loss to formation matrix
Carbon Dioxide - CO2 Application Features
Versatile and Easy to Use
Carbon dioxide fracturing is one of the most effective and cleanest approaches available today to increase oil and gas production. Carbon dioxide is injected in a liquid state using conventional frac pumps. Carbon dioxide can carry high concentrations of proppant and is compatible with all treating fluids (including acids). Injection rates can be enhanced by adding booster capacity.
Carbon dioxide can be pumped with synthetic and natural polymers, lease crude or diesel as a foam or micro-emulsion, raising the hydrostatic head and lowering the viscosity of the system; this, in turn, reduces horsepower costs. Carbon dioxide’s density allows it to carry high levels of proppant in foam form.
The use of carbon dioxide in fracturing is effective for a number of reasons:
Because of its density, carbon dioxide is not susceptible to gravity separation.
It provides solution gas drive for effective clean up.
When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissolves the matrix in carbonate rocks.
Carbon dioxide buffers water-based systems to a pH of 3.2, controlling clay-swelling and iron and aluminum hydroxide precipitation.
Carbon dioxide acts as a surfactant to significantly reduce interfacial tension and resultant capillary forces, thus removing fracturing fluid, connate water and emulsion blocks.
Can be used with foam qualities of 20-50% to provide energy and still optimize fracture length
Carbon Dioxide - A Better Way to Stimulate Your Well
When subjected to normal well stimulation pressures, carbon dioxide exhibits a hydrostatic head equal to or greater than fresh water. This lowers both treating pressures and horsepower costs.
Faster and Better Clean-up
Carbon dioxide provides the energy to remove formation fines, loose or crushed proppant, reaction products and mud lost during drilling. Swabbing of treating fluids can be substantially reduced.
By reducing the need for swabbing, associated treatment costs can be saved.
More Gas and Oil
Wells with low bottom-hole pressure or sensitivity to fluids can benefit from carbon dioxide treatment. Compared to a gelled water fracturing, a 70 quality foam job allows only 30% of the water to contact the formation. This decreases the chances of clay-swelling problems and inhibited production.
Gas and Oil Well Fracturing with Nitrogen
Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) is an effective alternative to carbon dioxide in many situations, especially in fracturing shallower wells. Linde supplies nitrogen to many areas of North America, through its network of air separation units.